Full NameArachis hypogaea
Infraspecific Rank
Infraspecific Name
Common NameCultivated peanut
Cultivated peanut JBrowse genome browser
Cultivated peanut GBrowse genome browser
Download the Cultivated peanut genome assembly

In the U.S., peanuts are an important crop in the U.S. southeastern states and southeastern states, partly due to the work of the African-American botanist George Washington Carver, who in the 1920s and 1930s promoted them as an alternative crop to cotton; he famously described about 300 different products made from peanuts, many of which he himself developed.

The peanut or groundnut (also known as groundnuts, earthnuts, goober peas, monkey nuts, pygmy nuts and pig nuts), is an annual herbaceous plant in the Fabaceae (legume or bean family) now grown in tropical and warm-temperate regions worldwide for its seeds and their oil. The seeds contain up to 50% oil making it one of the important oilseed crops in the world. After pollination, the flower stalks elongate, growing to 6 cm long, and push the developing pods into the ground, so that the fruit must be dug up from the soil to be harvested. The latin term hypogaea refers to this "below+ground" growth of the pod. Although appearing as and referred to as a nut, it is actually the underground pod of a legume, rather than a true nut. The fruit is an indehiscent legume (a pod that does not have sutures or split open freely), typically containing 1 to 3 soft seeds (sometimes as many as 6).

Cultivated peanut originated and was domesticated in South and Central America 3-5 thousand years ago, derived all of its genetic material from two wild ancestors, A. duranensis and A. ipaensis whose genomes merged several thousand years ago, in a rare genetic event. The wild species, therefore, have half as much genetic material as cultivated peanut. These two “simpler” genomes have first been sequenced toward achieving its ultimate goal: the complete genomic sequence for cultivated peanut.

The cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid (AABB, 2n=4x=40) that carries the A genome from A. duranensis and the B genome from A. ipaensis. These two ancestral diploids separated from each other about 3 million years ago. The genome merger, allopolyploidy event, ocurred relatively very recently, five to ten thousand years ago, followed by domestication in South America from where it appeared in most part of the world by 1600.

More about Arachis ... (Download a short review on 'Arachis duranensis, Arachis ipaensis, and the Origins of Cultivated Peanut')
Link at Encyclopedia Of Life:
The peanut genome is being sequenced and analyzed as part of the Peanut Genomics Initiative, in order to accelerate breeding progress and get more productive, disease-resistant, stress-tolerant varieties to farmers. The strategy to sequence the tetraploid peanut genome will make use of the diploid progenitors to help identify the similar chromosomes in cultivated peanut. This strategy will also better enable breeders and scientists to make use of greater genetic diversity in the close relatives of peanut. News and status: This website is, as of June 2013, brand-new (first turned on June 13). Content and functionality is currently minimal, but this will change rapidly through 2013 and 2014, leading to a web site with much of the functionality of SoyBase, with an audience of both genomic biologists and peanut breeders. Selected map, QTL, and trait data will be added first (in June and July). This will be expanded through 2013 and 2014. Map, marker, and transcriptome data sets will be added through this time as well, and the sequence search tools will be added (there is currently a minimally configured instance of Blast). Genomic sequence browsers will be added as soon as this data is assembled and public (likely in 2014); and resequencing and haplotype viewers shortly afterwards. Extensive interlinking among data sites, within and between species, will be possible once the genome sequences are complete. This website and much of the data-to-come have been made possible by funds from The Peanut Foundation and by the many contributors to the Peanut Genomics Initiative.
Feature Summary
The following features are currently present for this organism
Feature TypeCount
This organism is associated with 12,212 stock(s):
Grif 14860Cultivar
Grif 14861Cultivar
Grif 14869Cultivar
Grif 14870Cultivar
Grif 14871Cultivar
Grif 149Cultivar
Grif 14994Cultivar
Grif 14995Cultivar
Grif 14996Cultivar
Grif 14997Cultivar
Grif 14998Cultivar
Grif 14999Cultivar
Grif 150Cultivar
Grif 15000Cultivar
Grif 15001Cultivar
Grif 15002Cultivar
Grif 15003Cultivar
Grif 15004Cultivar
Grif 15017Cultivar
Grif 15030Cultivar
Grif 15031Cultivar
Grif 15032Cultivar
Grif 15033Cultivar
Grif 15034Cultivar
Grif 15035Cultivar


Genome Sequence
Project Name
Project DescriptionArachis ipaensis is a wild annual plant native to Bolivia. It is thought to be one of the diploid ancestors of cultivated tetraploid peanut. Arachis ipaensis accession K30076 was sequenced at Beijing Genomics Institute, with funding from The Peanut Foundation, as part of the International Peanut Genome Initiative. The sequencing stragety was whole-genome shotgun, from eight Illumina paired-end sequencing libraries, with insert sizes ranging from 170 bp to 40 kb. The primary contig and scaffold assemblies were constructed using SOAPdenovo (v2.04). Additional scaffolding was conducted using the SSPACE software.
ConsortiumThe International Peanut Genome Initiative
Sample Data
Stock NameK30076
Sample DescriptionGermplasm collection site: ARGENTINA, Salta, Prov. Salta, Argentina species described by Krapov. and W. C. Gregory accession maintained in Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (Cenargen, Brasilia, Brazil) by Jose FM Valls accession multiplied and DNA supplied by Soraya and David Bertioli
Assembly Data
Assembly Namearaip.K30076.gnm1